Diabetes project; Diabetes type 1&2 research

inputdiabetes.org

  • injection technology; needle length
    • children and adolescents:4, 5, 6 mm
    • 4, 5, 6 mm needles in common use for adults no need for longer than 8mm
    • always try shorter needles first
  • insulin needs to go into the fat not muscle
  • tip charateristics
    • 3 or 5 cut
    • more cuts means that the needle is thinner and will go into the skin easier
  • technology
    • did i take my insulin?
    • timesulin
    • insulcheck
    • novopen echo
  • reducing skin punctures
    • short-term injection port iport (3 days or 75 injections) reduces from 4-6 a day to 1 every 3 days
    • its pain free
    • easier to transport
  • needle-free injectors
    • insuject system
    • injex
  • buzzy for shots
    • buzzy product

type 1

  • needs to be treated with insulin
  • control blood sugar levels
  • most common injection sites; thighs, butt, belly
  • rotation of injection site is very important, staying in the same site makes it difficult for the body to absorb insulin also create scar tissue
  • 3 main gropus of insulin
    • animal (not for humans)
    • human (not suitable to use in insulin pen)
    • analogues  (synthetic)
  • analogues insulin
    • rapid-acting; before and after food; action 0-3 hours, lasting 2-5 hours
    • long-lasting; 1 a day, lasting 24 hours, food not needed
    • ultra long-lasting; provide insulin for 42 hours, 1 at any time of day, food not needed
    • short-acting; 15-30mins before meals; 2-6 hours, lasting up to 8 hours
    • medium and long lasting; 1 or 2 a day; 4-12 hours, lasting up to 30 hours
  • storing insulin; 25 degrees room temperature, ideally 2-6 degrees

Diabetes managed

  • type 1
    • insulin shots
    • meal planning
    • exercise
  • type 2
    • diet and exercise
    • medicine (mouth)
    • insulin shots (less common)
  • symptoms of type 1
    • increased thirst
    • dry mouth
    • a need to pee
    • weight loss
    • weak, tired feeling
    • blurred vision
  • symptoms of type 2
    • blurred vision
    • slow healing sores and cuts
    • itchy skin
    • yeast infections
    • increased thirst
    • dry mouth
    • need to pee
  • blood sugar levels
    •  blood sugar levels and numbers are individual to each person
    • between 70mg/dl and 180mg/dl
    • low blood sugar under 60mg/dl
      • weak
      • dizzy
      • hungry
      • trembles
      • shaky
      • sweat
      • pounding heart
      • pale skin
      • anxious

endocrineweb.com

  • type 1
    • type 1 is much less common than type 2
    • type 1 usually hits before 40 yrs old (in USA peak age is 14)
    • type 1; deficiency of insulin to do with the islet cells in the pancreas, unable to control the correct amount of output of insulin leading to blood sugar rises
    • type 1: more than 700,000 americans, 10% of all americans with diabetes have type 1, 3.7 out of 20 (per 100,000)
  • cause
    • autoimmune disorder; part of the immune system sees the islet cells of the pancreas as the enemy, body then create antibodies to fight these cells, then destroying them.
    • can be caused by viral infection
    • genetic tendency
  • treatment
    • insulin can not be taken as a pill; this is due to stomach acid destroying insulin before it gets to where it needs to go
    • insulin is a hormone and a protein
    • shots are most commonly used
    • insulin pumps have increased in popularity though is more expensive and may not be completely covered by insurance
    • 1 tubeless pump available on the current market

diabetes.org.uk

  • usually appears before the age of 40
  • type 1 is the most common type in children
  • between the age of 20-70 in 2015: 415 million (estimated)
  • expected: 1 out of 10 people by 2040
  • 1 out of 2 adults will have type 2 that is most likely undiagnosised
  • internation diabetes feration
    • estimated 7 countrieshad more than 10 million people with diabetes (china,india, usa, brazil, russia federation, mexico and indonesia)
    • increased prevelance in adult population
      • tokelau ( 30%)
      • navru, marritius, cook islands, marshall islands, palau, kuwait, saudi arabia, qatar new caledonia (19.6%)
  • estimated 4.5 million diabetes sufferers in the uk
  • 700 people a day / 1 every 2 mins  are diagnosised with diabetes
  • since 1996; diagnosed people has more than doubled from 1.4 million to 3.5 million
  • 10% of all diagnosed type 1 / 90% of all diagnosed type 2
  • more men than women/ 56% men 44% women
  • 31,500 children (under 19)
    • in the uk, majority is type 1
    • 95.1% type 1
    • 52% boys, 48% girls
    • girls are twice as likely to have type 2 as children
  • peak age; 9-14
  • diabetes causes 1 death every 6 seconds
    • 14.5% of global mortality in 20-79 yrs old
    • 47% deaths occurs in those under the age of 60
  • 34.4% more likely to die at a younger age
  • financial costs
    • 10 billion is spent by NHS of diabetes(10% of total budget)
    • equavilent to 1 million an hour
    • 1 out of 7 beds are taken up by a diabetic patient
  • diabetes contributes to 44% of : angina, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke
  • 45.1 million prescription items were dispensed in primary car in england (2013-14)
    • 803 million
    • increase in cost 5.1% (2012-13)

 

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